Do - Re - Mi - Beans!
Beans are one of the oldest cultivated plants on the planet. Currently, beans are among the legumes second in the world after soy.
Beans came to Russia relatively recently - in the 16th century - from Turkey and France. At first it was called beans and was specially grown only for decorative purposes. As a vegetable, beans were grown only in the 18th century.. In recent years, beans have become more popular.
© Malaurie Family
BeansLatin - Phaseolus.
Genus of plants of the legume family.
Receptacle with a cupped disc. The wings of the moth corolla are more or less spliced with a boat, whose long spinner, as well as the stamens and column are spirally twisted. A bicuspid bean, between seeds with incomplete sponge septa. Herbaceous plants, often annuals, mostly curly, with cirrus leaves. Leaflets 3, very rarely 1. Both the whole leaf and each leaflet is provided with stipules. Flowers in axillary tassels. Seeds are rich in legumin and starch.
© Jean-Jacques MILAN
Preparation of the site for beans
Beans are a heat-loving plant, so for it should take a bed in a sunny place. Growing beans in areas protected from cold winds has a beneficial effect on increasing yields. Areas with a neutral or slightly acidic soil reaction (pH 6-7) are diverted under the beans. If necessary, the soil must be liming before sowing.
The soil should be fertile, but without excess nitrogen. In the garden, vegetable beans should be sown for 2-3 years after applying organic fertilizers. In vegetable gardens, where the soil is usually well seasoned with organic fertilizers, it is sufficient to add only mineral, primarily phosphoric and potash ones. Mineral nitrogen fertilizers do not contribute, otherwise a powerful vegetative mass develops to the detriment of the fruits.
On soils with a low humus content, organic fertilizers in the form of compost are applied in the autumn for digging at the rate of 4 kg (half a bucket) per 1 sq.m. In spring, fertilizers are applied under beans: 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium chloride per 1 sq.m. The best predecessors - cucumber, cabbage, tomato, potato. At the same place, beans can be sown no earlier than after 3-4 years.
Beans are sown in two periods: early, when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 12-14 ° C, and after 7-10 days. Before sowing, the seeds are kept for 20 min in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (10 g per 1 liter of water), and then washed in clean water and dried.
Ordinary bush beans are sown to a depth of 5-6 cm at a distance of 40 cm row from row and 20-25 cm between plants. Curly beans are sown at a distance of 50 cm row from row, 25-30 cm between plants. For it, supports are set up to a height of 1.5 m. On light, well-heated soils, beans are sown on a flat surface, and on cold ridges with a close groundwater level - on ridges.
The undoubted advantage of beans - amazing unpretentiousness.
This is a thermophilic and photophilous plant, but they grow it, sowing seeds directly into the ground in late May - early June. It is possible to set the planting time of the beans more precisely on their own, they are sown simultaneously with cucumbers, that is, when you can no longer be afraid of frost.
Beans grow best on light, fertile, drained soil. Before planting in the garden make humus or compost. Bush beans are grown on ridges in three rows and planted in a checkerboard pattern. When sowing, two pre-soaked grains are put into the hole to a depth of 3-6 cm (depending on the mechanical composition of the soil, deeper on the lungs). The distance between the holes is 20–30 cm, the rows are 30–45 cm.
Before sowing semi-curly and curly types of beans, it is necessary to establish strong supports from stakes or wooden slats (plastic and metal are not suitable, since the plant will not be able to “catch on” them) 2–2.5 m high. A hole is made next to each support, into which 2 grains are placed at a depth of 5 cm. The distance between the holes is 15 cm. To give stability to the stems, the sprouts that have sprouted are spud.
Shoots appear after 5-7 days, they are very sensitive to frost. When there is a threat of cooling, seedlings are covered with spanbond or other covering material. Adult plants can withstand short-term light frosts. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of plants is 20–25 ° С.
Bean care consists in regular weeding, watering (in hot, dry weather) and loosening row spacings. To minimize watering and weeding, the soil can be mulched. Beans (shoulder blades) are harvested in two to three weeks from the beginning of flowering.
Beans propagated by seed. The soil is prepared in the fall: they are dug up, previously having scattered phosphorus fertilizers on its surface - 30-40 g / m. sq. Potash fertilizers (20-30 g / m2) are applied in the spring before sowing or as top dressing in the phase of the 2-3rd true leaf. In early spring, the surface of the ridge is loosened with a rake, covering moisture. Sowing is carried out when the soil warms up to 8-12 ° C (in the southern regions - the III decade of April, in the central and northern - I-II decade of May). Sow in an ordinary way according to the scheme 45 × 20-25 cm for varieties of climbing and 25-30 × 10 - 15 cm for bush. Seeding depth is 3-4 cm. Seedlings appear 4-6 days after sowing. In the phase of the 1st true leaf, seedlings are thinned out. During the growing season, the soil in rows and rows is 3-4 times loosened, removing weeds. Beans are a fairly drought tolerant crop, but in dry years, watering is required.
Technical maturity of asparagus bean occurs in 44-47 days in the early and 50-55 days in mid-ripening varieties after emergence. By this time, the pods reach 10-15 cm in length, and the seeds in them have the size of a wheat grain. Harvesting is carried out selectively, as the beans grow, for 2-3 weeks.
Fresh bean harvest dates can be extended by re-sowing. When sown in June, crops begin to arrive in late August, when sown in July - a month later. Typically, beans are sown with a second crop after harvesting early vegetables (cabbage, potatoes, lettuce, radishes). For repeated sowing, early varieties of asparagus beans are used. Beans from repeated crops are softer.
© Ardo Beltz
If legumes are sown after vegetables that have received large doses of organic and mineral fertilizers (root crops, cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes), then they do not require additional fertilizer.
If leguminous crops are planned to be planted as pioneers on the site or sown on infertile soils, fertilizers should be carefully selected to provide plants and not to give too much.
A specific feature of the nutrition of legumes is their increased need for calcium compared to other crops, therefore, the addition of lime or gypsum for autumn digging allows you to do two good things for legumes - to create optimal soil acidity and provide them with the necessary calcium.
As soon as the first true leaf develops in the beans, the first top dressing is carried out, and after about three weeks - the second.
Since beans, due to nodule bacteria, partially use air nitrogen, only full nitrogen-poor fertilizer is used for top dressing. Beans respond better to nutrition with nutrient solutions than to the surface application of dry fertilizers. In any case, subsequent watering should be carried out with clean water, washing the leaves well.
In no case should dry fertilizers or solutions fall onto the bean leaves, otherwise the plants will get severe burns. Bean leaves are very sensitive in this regard. Even rinsing fertilizers immediately with clean water cannot always prevent burns. Therefore, when applying fertilizers, great care is needed. When applying dry fertilizers, the hand with fertilizers should be located at the very surface of the soil. And when applying liquid top dressing, the mesh from the watering can is removed, and the nose is sent to the soil between the rows.
Twice hilling of beans is best done after feeding.
Since the bean seeds are not deep-sealed, hilling is necessary: the plants receive support and do not lie down after rain and in the wind. Beans are spudded as soon as the soil dries after application of fertilizing and related irrigation. The first time the plants are spudled with soil to the base of the first leaf, the second time - slightly higher.
Shrub bean is suitable as a second crop after all vegetables harvested before early July.
Beans can be sown from mid-May at different times, depending on the type of soil and site exposure.
It is best to sow every two weeks in order to continuously harvest green beans. However, one must keep in mind that July 15 is the deadline for sowing beans, at which you can still get a crop. This period should be taken into account primarily where beans are used as an intermediate crop on fruiting asparagus plants. In areas of cold (northern) exposure, it is useless to sow beans after July 10. It is also important to use only precocious varieties for late sowing.
To obtain a bean seed crop, it should be sown in the early stages, since with late sowing the seeds do not have time to ripen enough. The latest sowing date on light soils is the first decade of June. On all other soils, beans should be sown for seeds no later than the end of May.
When growing beans for seeds, many common varieties yield higher yields than fiberless varieties: in this case, it is not the flavors of the cusps that are important, but the size of the dry seed crop. The old North Star variety is most suitable for this. It has large white seeds and a high yield. Of all the varieties of bush beans, it has the shortest growing season. This variety should be sown not thicker than indicated above.
Harvesting beans for seeds is made after their full maturation. Not fully ripened bean seeds deteriorate during storage. Harvest time can be determined by the dry, wrinkled leaves of the pods. If rainy weather is expected by the time of harvesting, the whole plants, without touching the pods, are cut off at the surface of the soil (but do not tear them out with roots). Beans tied into bunches of plants are hung in a dry, ventilated place (shed, attic). Here they are until the seeds in the pods are dry, after which they can be peeled.
Unpulled roots along with nodule bacteria remain in the soil. Here they decompose and enrich the soil with humus and nitrogen.. This leads to the fact that in crops grown after beans, there is a particularly vigorous growth even without the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers. However, active bacterial growth can only be expected where the beans themselves have developed well.
Species and varieties
All varieties of beans can be divided into three groups: shelling, semi-sugar, sugar. The shape of the beans is bush, semi-curly and curly. By maturity, the varieties are divided into early ripe (up to 65 days), medium early (65-75 days), medium (75 - 85 days), mid-ripen (85-100 days), late (more than 100 days).
- Shelling, or grain, - they are grown exclusively for obtaining grains, since the leaves of these beans have a parchment layer. Most of them are inappropriate to grow in central Russia - they do not ripen, and they cannot be used unripe.
- Semi-sugar - beans with a weak or late parchment layer, they contain unpleasant coarse fibers that must be removed before cooking, which, of course, is not very convenient.
- Sugar or asparagus, - they do not contain a parchment layer. Among them, those varieties in which there are no hard fibers between the leaves are especially popular.
- 'Second'- an early ripe grade of sugar bean. The plant is bushy, compact. Unripe pods are cylindrical, without fibers, green, 10-12 cm long.
- ‘Sax’ - An early variety of asparagus bean. Beans have a delicate taste and meatiness.
- ‘Sax without fiber 615’ - An early variety of bush beans. Variety with sugar tender beans, very tasty, with a long fruiting period. Seeds are greenish yellow.
- ‘Pink’ - High-yielding mid-season variety of curly beans. From seedlings to the first harvest of the scapula, 65–85 days pass. The beans are long, marbled pink, xiphoid, without parchment and fibers, in each pod 6-10 grains.
- ‘Flat long’ - a high-yielding early ripe grade of curly bean. The period from seedlings to the first harvesting of the scapula is 45-50 days, seed maturation is 70-75 days. Beans are dark green, xiphoid, flat, 24–25 cm long, without parchment and fibers.
- ‘Fire red’ - high-yielding fiberless bean variety. Beans are ready for harvesting 90 days after sowing. Beans are dark green, flat, pods are up to 30 cm long.
- ‘Purple’ - mid-season variety of curly beans. The period from seedlings to technical ripeness is 65–85 days. Beans are long, without parchment layer, rounded flat, slightly curved, purple, in each pod of 6-10 grains.
Diseases and Pests
Of the pests, the most harmful is the bean kernel - Anthoscelides obtectus Say. Beetle 2.8-3.5 mm long, covered with grayish and yellowish-gray hairs on top, forming numerous unsharp spots; pi-hydium yellow-red, anterior back without denticles on the sides, more or less spherical; on the hips of the hind legs from below on the inner edge, one sharp tooth and 2-3 small teeth behind it. The egg is 0.55-0.7 mm long, 0.24-0.31 mm wide, elongated-oval, cigar-shaped, less commonly slightly curved, white, matte. Adult larva, which hatch from an egg, 3-5 mm long, yellowish-white, slightly curved; instead of legs, small tubercles. The larva of the first generation is white, with well-developed legs. Pupa 3-4 mm long, yellowish white.
Distributed on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, the North Caucasus, in Western Ukraine, Crimea and Moldova.
The pest hibernates inside the grain in places of its storage, and in the field - in the scavenger and in the soil under plant debris. Since the bean kernel does not have a pause, it continues to develop in the fall and winter during storage and can be found there in different phases of development. In places where beans are stored, the pest develops up to 6 generations. In the field, the grain gives 1-2 generations.
In spring, beetles fly from wintering places to a distance of 2.5 km. They feed on the generative organs of various leguminous plants: pollen, petals, flowers. In spring and early summer, the caryopsis can be found on weeds, on alfalfa growing after mowing, on alfalfa seed plants. On beans, a caryopsis appears at the beginning of the formation of beans; en masse - at the beginning of bean ripening, first in the early varieties, then in the middle and late ripening. Females lay eggs in cracks in the bean seam and in the fossa specially gnawed in the dorsal seam, as well as directly on the seam (in storage areas for grain) in groups of 20-40 eggs. Fertility of one female is 70-100 eggs. Embryonic development lasts from 5 to 11 days. The optimal conditions for it are created at 28 ... 30 ° C and relative humidity of 70-80%. Larvae bite into the seeds, and all further development of the pest takes place there. The larva develops from 18 to 30 days, the pupa - 8-16 days.
At -10 ° C, the bean kernels beetles inside the grain die after 12 hours, the pupae after 8, the larva after 7, and the eggs withstand more than 16 hours. Complete disinfection of seeds from the pest in all phases of development is achieved at 0 ° C for two months.
Bean kernels damage all types and varieties of beans, but more often - Ordinary, as well as chickpeas and chin. Less commonly, it damages: from beans - Tepari, Golden (Mash), Angular (Azuki), Rice, Lima (Lunar) and Multiflowered, and from other plants - concave, fodder beans and lentils. In one grain there can be up to 28 larvae that drain the grain, contaminate with excrement, and its nutritional and seed qualities are reduced.As a parasite of bean kernels, Diparmus laticepsAshm is known.
© Sanjay Acharya
According to nutritionists, legumes are on the list of the 10 most healthy foods. Beans are suitable for diabetic nutrition and fasting diets. Fiber, which is rich in legumes, is a natural laxative that prevents constipation.
Bean seeds and green pods are used for food. The special nutritional value of beans is in the combination of high-quality protein with starch, sugars, minerals, vitamins and essential amino acids. Be healthy!