The technology of pruning fruit trees and other methods for rejuvenating the garden.
There are basic techniques for pruning fruit trees. The first is when a whole branch is cut out from the warp of its attachment to the trunk or another branch, and it is called thinning. The second is trimming, i.e. shortening branches. In addition to them, additional methods are used that contribute to the best effect for rejuvenation and fruiting of the garden. Let's look at all the existing methods.
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Shortening consists in removing the necessary part from the branch. When less than one third is removed, then this weak shorteninge, half - average shorteningand more than half - strong shortening. This pruning method is used if you need to change the growth of a branch in the right direction, reduce the crown, increase branching, activate the growth of the old crown, and restore frozen branches. If the tree has a strong shoot formation, then shortening the crown will lead to its thickening. And shortening with a weak formation of flower buds will lower the yield. Shortening one-year or two-year growth, the cut is made over the kidney with a sharp knife. The distance from the base of the kidney to the cut should be 2 mm, and the cut angle of 45 degrees. Holding the branch below the cut, make a sharp movement with a knife. Secateurs are used for old branches, only it is necessary to ensure that the cut is not chewed and the kidney is not damaged. Very old branches are truncated by trimming for translation. A sawn-off shot is made over a side branch growing in the necessary direction. If the branch thickness is more than three centimeters, a garden saw is used. The stump is left small in size, and the angle between the side branch (or rather its direction) and the cut line is made at 30 degrees. With a similar cut, the branch is directed to grow in the selected direction.
Tenderloin whole branches are produced in such a way as to reduce thickening, improve the penetration of sunlight into the crown, and to clear the tree of large, dried branches. A branch extending from the trunk at an angle of more than 30 degrees has a circular influx at the base. From here came the name clipping under the ring. Perform a slice at the very top of the influx. In the absence of an influx, the place for trimming is determined so that the cut is not long and without shoulder. A pruner is used to remove thin branches, and no twists or twists are allowed. Thick branches are cut with a saw in several stages. First, from the base, at a distance of 30 cm, make the lower cut. The second washed down - after 15 cm from above. After the branch breaks off, the resulting stump should be cut off at the right angle in the right place.
Kidney removal is done in young trees when a crown is formed. In this way, the appearance of young branches in the right place is eliminated. For this, the main kidney and those located next to it are cut with a knife. Thus, they direct all nutrients to activate the growth of the desired leaves and branches.
Breaking out is performed if it is necessary to remove unnecessary shoots with a size of not more than 10 cm. This work is not laborious, while the wounds heal quickly, nutrients are saved. Breaking out is generally done after trimming the tops of the trees.
Pinch remove the growth bud on the shoots in order to stop their growth and the formation of lateral strong shoots. Pinching is carried out 2-3 weeks before the end of the growing season, over the fifth sheet of secateurs. Successful pinching is evidenced by the appearance of new shoots of the type of gloves. If the pinching was done at the wrong time, then the nearby kidneys awaken and the shoot growth resumes. Single nibbles also pinch. In the event that there are many shoots, the branch is cut over one of the lower shoots, which are also pinched.
Kerbovka represents the removal of a four-centimeter-wide strip of bark with a small amount of wood beneath or above the kidney. This method slows down (the strip is removed under the kidney) or enhances (on top of the kidney) shoot growth. Kerbovka is made in early spring in young trees during the creation of the crown. Slices can be oval, cruciform, rectangular.
Banding used to accelerate fruiting in young animals or to weaken the growth of individual branches, if they do not want to be removed. At the base of the branch, the bark is cut out in an annular band one centimeter wide. The slice is closed with a garden var or wrapped with a film, otherwise it will overgrow. With banding, the outflow of photosynthesis substances slows down, they go to strengthen flower buds. If banding is done in the initial period of the growing season, then next season such branches will give many flowers and fruits. Banding is not advised to do on stone fruit, pears, trees with slow growth and on the main branches of the crown. One of the methods of banding is the imposition of a fruit belt. The belt is very good in that it can be removed at any time. It is made of soft tin strips, which are pulled over by wire. Such a belt is superimposed on trees that are in active growth, but not yet fruitful. You can not use the belt for a long time, for several years. Otherwise, that part above the belt may lag behind in development, and the roots will weaken.
Often on the bark of a tree appear longitudinal, long, lacerated wounds that do not heal for a long time. This occurs when the coarse bark ruptures due to the pressure of growing wood. In order for the wounds to heal quickly on the main branches and trunk, they make 15 cm longitudinal cuts with a knife. The bark is cut to the wood in a circle, the gaps between them are 2 cm. This method is called furrowing. It can not be done on young trees, as well as old ones, which have a very rough bark.
When forming certain types of crowns, a technique is used that changes the orientation of the branches in space. Branches that grow horizontally do not grow so fast, form a larger number of shoots, have a large number of flower buds and bear fruit, which is naturally better. Branches are rejected when the shoots only enter the lignification period, otherwise in the spring the branches will return to their original position. In order to give the branches a horizontal position, they are attracted to a driven stake, neighboring branches, the trunk. The loop should be free so that the bark is not damaged. If the twine is attached to thick branches, then in the lower part they make small cuts with a knife, which will not allow the twine to slip. If the deviating branch grows at an acute angle, then when it deviates, it can break off. Therefore, the place of the corner is strengthened, it is fixed tightly tied with a rope. To reject small branches, weights are used that are hung on them.