Aglaonema - home care
The homeland of this indoor ornamental plants is China, India and Southeast Asia. Aglaonema is a relative of Dieffenbachia and therefore is somewhat similar to it, differs only by narrower leaves, the size of aglaoneema is much smaller than Dieffenbachia, and the plant itself has the shape of a bush. In addition, at home aglaonemes bloom much more often and for quite a long time and form fruits. Aglaonema is one of the most suitable plants for hydroponic culture.
- Description of aglaonema
- Features of growing aglaonema
- Aglonema care at home
- Aglaonem propagation
- Types of aglaonema
- Possible growing difficulties
Description of aglaonema
Aglaonema (Aglaonema) - a genus of evergreen grasses and shrubs of the Aroid family (Araceae), or Aronikovye.
Genus Aglaonem (Aglaonema) according to various sources, from 20 to 50 species of plants of the aroid family. The name of the genus comes from the Greek. aglaia - shine, nema - stamen. Aglaonems grow in tropical rain or monsoon forests, in the lower tier of the forest, on humid plains, along the banks of rivers and streams. The range of the genus covers the tropics of India, China, Southeast Asia, the Malay archipelago, New Guinea.
These are evergreen herbaceous plants with erect short fleshy stems, in some species the trunk branches at the base. Young aglaonemes have practically no noticeable stem; in adults, a short stem forms on which traces of the bases of fallen leaves are preserved.
The leaves on the long or short petioles are dense, leathery, whole-edge, from broadly egg-shaped to oblong-lanceolate, patterned, the middle vein is depressed, protruding from the bottom of the leaf. The color of aglaonema leaves varies by species and variety.
An inflorescence is an ear with a greenish-white veil. Inflorescences develop 1-3 in the axils of the upper leaves. Depending on the type, the cobs are thin, cylindrical (0.3-0.5 cm in diameter, 4-6 cm long) or thick, club-shaped (0.8-1 cm and 3-4 cm, respectively). Fruits - berry, juicy, bright orange ruby color, less often - white, oblong, containing one seed. Ripen within 6-8 months.
Aglaonema is cultivated as a decorative foliage plant in rooms and greenhouses with moderate air temperature.
Features of growing aglaonema
Shine: bright, scattered for variegated forms, for plants with a uniform color of leaves - shading.
Temperature: in summer + 20 ... + 25 ° C, in winter at least + 16 ... + 18 ° C.
Watering aglaonemes: in summer it is plentiful, in winter time watering is reduced, making sure that the substrate does not dry out, but also is not very waterlogged.
Air humidity: high, spraying in winter with warm water.
Aglaonema nutrition: from March to August every two weeks with mineral and organic fertilizers, in autumn and winter - without top dressing.
Rest period: (September-February), the temperature is not lower than + 16 ... + 18 ° C, watering regularly, do not feed.
Transfer: in the spring, young annually, adults as necessary every 3-5 years.
Breeding: in the spring; seeds, apical cuttings, offspring (processes), division during transplantation.
Aglonema care at home
All aglaonems grow in tropical rainforests. This determines their growing conditions. Under natural habitats, the aglaonema grows in the lower tier of the forest, where little light penetrates. Particle shade is preferable for aglaonem, they are shade-tolerant, do not tolerate direct sunlight, as this threatens to burn the leaves. But for variegated forms, in order not to lose the decorative pattern of leaves, bright diffused light is needed.
The optimum temperature for growth is + 20 ... + 25 ° C. In winter, the temperature should not fall below + 16 ... + 18 ° C, it is advisable to avoid sudden changes in temperature. Drafts should be avoided, as they are destructive for aglaonemes.
During the growing season (spring-summer), aglaonema is watered abundantly as the top layer of the substrate dries. In the autumn-winter period, they are watered regularly, after a day or two, after the top layer of the substrate dries. Watering is done with well-defended soft and warm water. Overdrying of an earthen coma, as well as overmoistening (especially in winter), are dangerous for aglaonema.
Aglaonema requires high humidity. Therefore, aglaonema should be sprayed regularly. To increase humidity, you can group plants or put the plant on a pallet with wet pebbles, peat or expanded clay. In this case, the bottom of the pot should not touch the water. In the autumn-winter period, if the air temperature is low, then spraying should be carried out carefully.
During the growing season (from March to August), they are fed every two weeks, alternating mineral and organic fertilizers of usual concentration, in winter they do not feed the plant.
Agloneme requires a substrate that is well permeable to moisture and air for successful growth. The substrate should be light enough, it consists of 3 parts of leafy soil, 0.5 parts of humus, 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand and 0.5 part of charcoal (3: 0.5: 1: 1: 0.5); or sheet land, peat and sand (2: 1: 1) with the addition of crushed charcoal. Good drainage is needed.
It grows well in hydroponics.
Aglaonems are propagated in spring and summer by stem cuttings, offspring, less often by seeds.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings root in warm soil. All aglaonemes are beautifully cuttings, and for species with a vertical stem, it is not recommended to use the usual apex cuttings, but cutting off the majority of the stem almost at the soil level, followed by planting in a high pot.
Roots are actively formed from sleeping buds on the stem, and the aerial part of the uterine plant gives new shoots. Water the newly planted stalk until completely rooted should be carefully, avoiding jamming. The substrate should be as loose as possible.
Aglaonema is bared from below and “falls over”. Such a plant needs to be rejuvenated - cuttings.
- Cut the most overgrown stem at a height of 2-3 cm from the soil level.
- Secateurs divide a long shoot into several segments of 10-15 cm.
- Manually remove the bottom leaves from each stalk.
- Pour drainage into the container, then the rooting substrate - coarse river sand or a mixture of peat and sand.
- Pour the mixture thoroughly with water.
- Immerse the cuttings in the substrate at half their height, water abundantly and place the container in a warm place.
- After 2-3 weeks in spring and summer, or after 4-6 weeks in winter, the plant will take root sufficiently.
- Plant rooted cuttings of several pieces in small pots or transplanted separately into different ones.
Aglaon seed propagation
High efficiency of seed propagation of aglaonema. The abundant fruiting in indoor conditions is not only surprising in itself and pleases the eye with large red single-seeded berries, but also guarantees the germination of seeds of ripe fruits (do not pick berries ahead of time: quite mature fruits have an intense red color and remain in the hand when touched). Artificial pollination is not required.
Types of aglaonema
Moderate aglaonema, or Humble Aglaonema (Aglaonema modestum) Homeland - mountain slopes covered with tropical rainforests on the Indochina Peninsula and on the Malay Archipelago. The height of plants is 40-50 cm. The trunk is branched. The leaves are oval, 15-20 cm long and 6-9 cm wide, obtuse at the base, pointed at the apex, with 4-5 protruding veins on each side of the midrib, uniform green color. The fruits are red, reminiscent of the fruits of dogwood.
Aglaonema modified, or Aglaonema is changeable (Aglaonema commutatum) Homeland - Philippines, Sulawesi (in the Malay archipelago in Indonesia). A plant with upright stems, the length of which ranges from 20 to 150 cm. Leaves up to 30 cm long and 10 cm wide on long petioles. Flowers are collected in inflorescences of 3-6 flowers. The cob is thin, up to 6 cm long, the cover is pale green, longer than the cob. The fruit is a red berry. Appearing fruits increase the decorative qualities of this aglaonema.
Especially popular varieties having a different shape and color of the leaves.
Aglaonema brilliant (Aglaonema nitidum) Homeland - Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Kalimantan. In nature, it grows in moist forests, in lowland plains. A large plant with stems up to 1 m high. The leaves are bright or dark green, shiny above, often oblong, up to 45 cm long, up to 20 cm wide. Flowers are collected in 2-5. The ear is approximately equal to the bedspread, its length is 6 cm. The fruits are white.
Ribbed Aglaonema (Aglaonema costatum) Homeland - tropical rainforests of southwestern Malaysia. Grassy undersized plants, branched at the base. The leaves are oval-ovate, about 20 cm long and 10 cm wide, dense, green, with white spots and strokes on the upper side.
Aglaonema painted (Aglaonema pictum) Homeland - tropical rainforests on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. The height of the plants is about 60 cm. The stem branches strongly at the bottom. Numerous shoots are densely covered with leaves. The leaves are elongated elliptical, 10-20 cm long and 5 cm wide, dark green, with uneven grayish spots on the surface, rather large. In some forms, the leaves have silver-white spots, very beautiful. The fruit is red.
Aglaonema oblongifolia (Aglaonema marantifolium) It grows in the tropical rainforests of Singapore, the Philippines, on the islands of Borneo and Penang. The leaves are dark green, large, up to 30 cm long, located on long (up to 20 cm) petioles. Some varieties on the leaves have a silver-gray pattern.
Possible growing difficulties
Aglaonema has wrinkled leaves with brown tips:
- Cause - air is too dry.
Aglaonema has twisted leaves with brown edges:
- Cause - Too cold air or drafts.
On the leaves of aglaonema, white-yellow spots:
- Cause - burn from direct sunlight. Put the plant in the shade, let it cool and then spray it with water at room temperature.
Slowed plant growth and brown leaves at the edges:
- Cause - too hard and cold water. It is necessary to water the plants with settled water (they defend water during the day). Water hardness can be reduced by removing calcium salts by adding 0.2 g of oxalic acid per 10 l. water, after which the water should settle for precipitation of salts (use the upper transparent part for irrigation). To reduce the hardness of water, citric acid can be used.
Is damaged: spider mite, mealybug, aphids, whiteflies, thrips.
Precautions: Aglaonems contain substances that irritate the skin and mucous membranes. The juice and berries of the plant are poisonous.