Varieties of pears
“The variety decides the success of the whole thing.”
These words I. After all, it is very important to choose a variety correctly. Therefore, I decided to introduce you to some varieties of pears.
Despite the undoubted advantages, the pear is intensively cultivated only in the southern fruit growing zone.. In the middle zone of the country, it did not receive distribution, since until recently, mainly old varieties, insufficiently resistant to frost, susceptible to scab disease, with fruits of mediocre taste were grown mainly.
The centuries-old folk selection, which gave excellent varieties of apple trees and other fruit and berry crops, which are now successfully growing in the harsh climatic regions of Russia, has proved powerless in creating valuable forms of pear. The existing Central Russian varieties - Bessemyanka and Tonkovetka (not counting the different bergamot, mullets and their seedlings with poor taste of the fruit) - cannot satisfy us. The fruits of these varieties - summer and early autumn ripening - are affected by scab, are not stored in the bed and therefore serve only for consumer purposes in the areas of their growth.
Moreover, in severe winters, the Bessemyanka and Tonkovetka freeze strongly and, in the following years, as a rule, do not bear fruit.
It is extremely difficult to develop new high-quality, winter-hardy, disease-resistant pear varieties of different ripening dates for the middle zone of the country. Several decades ago I. Michurin
set the task of promoting pear plantations to the north. Since then, domestic breeding has reached
certain successes, and new pear varieties created by students and followers of I. Michurin, firmly established in amateur gardens and received well-deserved recognition.
However, the fruits of this valuable culture are still lacking. And this is due to the fact that previously cultivated varieties discredited the pear as a crop, and new varieties are not yet known to a wide range of gardeners, they are being introduced slowly.
In the Central Genetic Laboratory. I. Michurin developed valuable varieties. According to a number of indicators, they significantly exceed the previous assortment and can serve as the basis for laying home gardens.
The variety was obtained by sowing seeds from the free pollination of Forest Beauty. The authors of the variety I. Michurin, P. N. Yakovlev, S. P. Yakovlev and 3. Tsvetaeva.
It comes into bearing on the 4th-5th year after planting. Fruits of the medium size (weight up to 185 g). The average yield is more than 30 kg from 13-year-old trees. The pulp is sweet, of good quality. A variety of autumn consumption period is September — October.
It is of interest for cultivation in the Voronezh, Kursk, Belgorod regions.
The favorite of Yakovlev.
The variety was bred by P. Yakovlev from crossing the Michurin variety Daughter Blankova with the Belgian variety Bergamot
Esperina. Partially self-fertile. It tolerates drought. Fruiting is annual. Productivity is up to 80 kg from a 13-year-old tree. It comes into bearing on the 4th-5th year after planting.
The fruits of the autumn period of consumption (October), the highest value (130 g). The pulp is juicy, sweet-sour, with quince aroma. In wet years, the fruit can be affected by scab.
Zoned in the Tambov, Lipetsk, Belgorod, Penza, Moscow regions, it is also recommended for cultivation in the Ryazan, Tula and Kaluga regions.
The variety was bred by P. Yakovlev and S. Yakovlev from the crossing of the Lukashev pear Tem and Lyubimitsa Klappa.
Winter hardiness is high, annual fruiting, good yield - up to 40 kg from a 13-year-old tree. Negatively reacts to drought. In the conditions of the Tambov region it does not require spraying against diseases. It comes into bearing on the 4th - 6th year after planting.
Fruits - from round to egg-shaped (up to 150 g). The pulp is juicy, sweet and sour, sometimes with astringency. The fruits ripen in mid-September. The consumption period is up to 15 days.
Recommended for cultivation in Tambov, Ryazan, Tula, Kaluga, Moscow, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Chelyabinsk and Kuibyshev regions.
Derived by P. Yakovlev from crossing Koperechka Michurinskaya number 10 and Dekanka winter variety. Winter hardiness is good, annual fruiting, high productivity - 40 kg from a 10-year-old tree. It comes into bearing on the 4th — 6th year after planting.
Fruits are round to conical in shape, usually of medium size (maximum weight of individual fruits is 130 g). The pulp is sweet and sour, aromatic. Consumer maturity occurs in mid-October. The consumption period is about a month. In the conditions of the fruit storage - until January. It has very high technological qualities.
It is recommended for cultivation in Tambov, Lipetsk, Penza, Ryazan, Moscow and some other related areas.
The variety was bred by P. Yakovlev, S. Yakovlev and 3. Tsvetaeva from crossing the Michurin variety Daughter Blankova with the Belgian variety Bergamot Esperin. Winter hardiness of flower buds, annual shoots and young wood in the area of Michurinsk is satisfactory. In the winter period, in some years, there is damage to the cortex of skeletal knots and boles. The average yield of 30-35 kg from a 13-year-old tree. It comes into bearing on the 4th-5th year after planting.
Fruits weighing from 135 to 260 g.
The pulp is very sweet, with a light refreshing acid, a weak muscat aroma - excellent taste. Tasting score of about 5 points. The beginning of the consumption period is mid-October. In fruit storage, fruits can be stored until December - January.
Recommended for cultivation in the Lipetsk, Voronezh, Kursk, Belgorod and Rostov regions.
In memory of P. Yakovlev.
Breeding CTF and Fruit and Vegetable Institute. Michurin. Derived by P. Yakovlev, Ya. S. Nesterov, S. Yakovlev and R. M. Korshikova from crossing a Lukashev pear. Topic with Olivier de Serre. The yield of 13-year-old trees is up to 70 kg. It bears fruiting on the 3-4th year after planting,
Highly winter-resistant, disease-resistant, self-fertile variety with compact undersized trees. The fruit mass is 111-135 g. The pulp is sweet, with a slight acid and a very pleasant aroma.
The consumption period is the second decade of September. When lying down, the fruits can be stored until November in the conditions of the fruit storage.
Recommended for regionalization in the Tambov region, as well as for cultivation in amateur gardens of Lipetsk, Ryazan, Penza, Moscow, Voronezh and other regions of central Russia.
The variety was bred by P. Yakovlev from crossing Koperechka Michurinsky Ml 12 (Ussuri X Vera Ligel) with the variety Lyubimitsa Klappa. It comes into bearing in the 2-3rd year after planting. The variety is self-fertile, resistant to disease. Winter hardiness is very high. Productivity is annual, high - up to 110 kg from a 15-year-old tree.
Bred by P. Yakovlev and A. Gribanovsky from crossing a hybrid Ussuri seedling X Vera Ligel with cultivar Lyubimitsa Klappa. Winter hardiness is satisfactory, immune to scab. In the conditions of the Tambov region, it does not require spraying against diseases at all. The average yield of 35 kg from a 10-year-old tree. It comes into bearing on the 4th — 6th year after planting. The fruit mass is 80-100 g. The pulp is sweet, with a light refreshing acid, slightly aromatic, without astringency and granulation. The beginning of the consumer period is the first half of September. Technologically valuable variety
The variety is of interest for cultivation in the Central Black Earth zone of Russia.
A quick-rip from Michurinsk.
Bred by P. Yakovlev from crossing the Ussuri hybrid X Vera Ligel with Citron de Carm. Very
highly winter-resistant and productive variety - up to 50 kg from a 10-year-old tree. It comes into bearing in the 3-4th year after planting.
Fruits are yellow, medium or lower sized, ovoid. The pulp has a good sweet and sour taste.
A variety of ultra-early ripening. Consumer period - from mid-July, 10-12 days.
It is of interest for cultivation in all areas of central Russia.
For amateur gardening, not only dining rooms are important, but also the technological advantages of fruits. In compotes, they retain qualities that are as close to natural as possible. They do not boil in jam, at the same time they are well soaked in syrup and retain volume and shape. In this regard, the varieties of pears described here are good raw materials for making compotes, preserves, juices.
When using autumn-winter ripening pears for stewed fruit and jam, taken from the fruit storage, a good-looking product is obtained, however, the slices remain rather coarse, dense, especially in stewed fruit. It is necessary to ripen the fruit for 3 to 5 days at a temperature of 18-20! The fruits are ready for processing when they begin to soften.
In recent years, the demand for seedlings and cuttings of pears among gardening enthusiasts has increased.. In this regard, I would like to warn against the thoughtless desire to have in our garden high-quality, but weakly resistant varieties that are not adapted to the harsh climate.