Adonis - lover of Venus
The literature has repeatedly mentioned the beautiful legend of the adonis plant, whose Latin name is adonis. This legend was very popular in Ancient Greece, but reached the greatest fame in the Renaissance, when numerous paintings and sculptures were created on the plot of the legend of Venus and Adonis.. The legend of Adonis is most fully set forth in Ovid's Metamorphoses. According to one version of the legend, Venus was angry with the wife of the Cypriot king Kimir for disrespect and inspired his daughter with a passion for his father. The king, not suspecting the truth and succumbing to the temptation, entered into a relationship with Mirra, but when he discovered the truth, he cursed it. The gods turned the unfortunate into a tree of myrrh, with precious fragrant juice oozing from wounds. From a cracked trunk a child was born, who was called Adonis. The boy was unusually handsome. Venus gave him up to Persephone, the wife of the god of the underworld of Hades, with the condition that when the child grows up, he will return to her. But, when the appointed time arrived, Persephone did not want to part with him. Zeus himself had to become a judge in this dispute, who decided that in the summer Adonis would live on the earth with Venus, and for the winter he would return underground with Persephone. Happy Venus roamed the forests with Adonis, begging him not to take risks and not to hunt ferocious animals - bears and boars. But once Adonis went hunting alone and died from the fangs of a wild boar. Venus bitterly mourned her lover, and then turned him into a flower, sprinkling nectar on the youth’s blood.
© Zachi Evenor
The genus Adonis, or Adonis, has about 45 perennial and annual species. And let the color of the corolla in most species is not blood red, all of them, in the understanding of nerds, are relatives of the "flower of Adonis." Representatives of the genus live both on the plains and in the mountainsrising to 4500 m above sea level. Due to the habitat in remote areas, many species remain to date poorly understood. First of all, it is Adonis vernalis (Adonis vernalis), adonis. This plant is the steppes of the European part of Russia, Crimea, Ciscaucasia, Siberia, as well as Central and Southern Europe. Adonis vernalis is a component of forbs of meadow steppes and steppe meadows. This is one of the very beautiful plants, with flowers burning with gold, blooming in late April and ending flowering in late May and early June. The lower leaves are scaly, stalk-bearing, and the stalks are sessile, many times dissected. A large flower with a diameter of up to 6 cm, consisting of 15-20 free yellow, shiny petals supported by five pubescent sepals, is located at the top of the stem. There are many stamens and pistils. The height of flowering plants is 10-15 cm, fruiting, 40-60 cm. The wrinkled fruits with a hooked nose ripen in July. Assembled fruit from dry numerous nuts - multi-roots.
Adonis spring in Europe introduced into the culture. There are garden forms.
© TANAKA Juuyoh
Care and reproduction
All adonises grow slowly and are very sensitive to transplants. The soil must be kept loose and moist. Renewal buds are laid 2-4 years in advance, so you need to cut the plant carefully, being careful not to damage the kidneys.
Propagated by seeds and division of the bush. Planting is carried out in August - early September, so that before the onset of frost, plants can take root well.
The division and transplantation of adonises should be carried out no earlier than 4-5 years of cultivation, in one place without transplantation the adonises develop well up to 10 years. The best option is to transplant plants with a clod of earth, without disturbing the roots, grow slowly, dividing them into small parts is not recommended. In the first year after planting, plants bloom and develop poorly, normal flowering occurs only from the second year. Reproduction of perennial adonises by seeds is difficult, since they have low germination, in addition, part of the seeds germinates only in the second year. Sowing seeds, preferably peeled, should be done immediately after collection. Until winter, boxes with crops should be stored in a cold basement, and then dug in the snow. It is possible to store seeds in a slightly moist substrate in the refrigerator until the beginning of spring, followed by germination in a greenhouse at 18-22 degrees. Young plants grow slowly; they reach full development only for 4-5 years.
© TANAKA Juuyoh
Perennial adonises are unsuitable for cutting, but they are very effective in group plantings or among rarely planted shrubs. When planting, they should be located closer to the tracks, they are good on rocky hills from the east and west. Valuable medicinal raw materials - already in the XIV century it was widely used in folk medicine for convulsions, various heart and kidney diseases.
© Roberto Verzo
Golden Adonis (Adonis chrysocyathus) - one of the rare plants in Central Asia. This herbaceous perennial is an extremely valuable medicinal and ornamental plant that is found on the Tien Shan, in Kashmir, Western Tibet, where adonis curtains create colorful bright yellow spots on rocky mountain slopes. The radiance of yellow is especially expressive against the background of the still not melted snow and the blue of the alpine sky. A limited number of localities of this species are known, and the number of populations is constantly and significantly reduced due to human intervention. The aerial part is represented by one or a group of semi-rosette shoots, the number and size of which depend on age. So, a middle-aged individual has up to 30 rosettes with a height of 45-50 cm. Generative shoot, as a rule, with a single large bright yellow flower. The shoot is equal to the height or slightly higher than the height of the rosette leaves.
Adonis Turkestan (Adonis turkestanicus) - one of the valuable medicinal plants of Central Asia - the endemic of the Pamir-Alai. The main part of its range is connected with the mountain systems of Gissaro-Darvaz, where it can form continuous thickets in juniper and tragacanthus at an altitude of 2000-3500 m above sea level. The cleanest thickets are noted in the places of former perennial cattle sites. This indicates a positive attitude of plants to soil rich in organic matter. Turkestan Adonis at the beginning of flowering has a height of 10-20 cm, and during fruit ripening up to 70 cm. The whole plant is covered with curly hairs. Flowers at the ends of shoots are single, 4-6 cm in diameter, perianth is double, regular, consists of a corolla and calyx. Petals are yellow-orange, bluish on the underside. A characteristic feature of this species is that at the same time the plant has freshly formed buds, opened flowers and seed set. Since each shoot has lateral shoots of the first, second, third, and sometimes fourth orders, there can be up to 250 flowers on one middle-aged individual. The flowers appear first on the axis of the first order. As the plant grows, the flowers bloom on the axis of the second, third orders, which determines the extension of the timing of flowering and fruit formation. Such a long flowering is an important adaptation to the harsh conditions of the highlands.
Adonis Mongolian (Adonis mongolica) - An endemic plant of Mongolia. It occurs within the Hangai, in mountain and meadow steppes, along the edges of larch forests. Most abundant on the sites of old cattle camps. It grows on loose, humus-rich soils. The shoots of a middle-aged plant are numerous (up to 20-30 or more), have lateral shoots of the second and third orders. Basal leaves are reduced. Median leaves, in the sinuses of which shoots of the following orders are formed, sessile. The flowers are large, 2.5-5 cm in diameter. Sepals are light green, sometimes with a purple tint, pubescent with small hairs. The petals are white. Adonis of Mongolia is one of the early spring plants of Mongolia. It is hard to imagine a brighter and more beautiful picture - hats of snow-white flowers on the steppe slopes with last year's brown foliage against a bright blue sky. Flowering begins in April-May, and mass flowering - in late May, June. The first wave of flowering is formed by the apical flowers of the main shoots. They are replaced by apical flowers of the second, third, and so on orders. You should pay attention to the fact that all the side shoots, regardless of location on the main, end at the same level. This explains the abundant flowering, in which the flowers form a kind of dome in the form of a snow-white “cap”. The next flowering wave is formed from flowers located on the branches of the following orders. This flowering rhythm contributes to the constant decorativeness of the plant and increases the possibility of seed ripening in the most favorable weather period. It is appropriate to recall the sharp continentality of the climate of Mongolia, especially its mountainous regions, when during the growing season sharp temperature fluctuations are possible up to frost, snow and hail. Leaves unfold after blooming flowers. The growth of shoots continues until the seeds ripen. The herb of the Mongolian adonis serves as a raw material for obtaining valuable cardiac glycosides.
Adonis Amur (Adonis amurensis) - perennial herb from the Far East, where it grows in cedar-deciduous forests. The leaves are pinnately dissected on long stalks, develop after flowering and last until July, August. It blooms from April for 2-3 weeks. The flowers are golden yellow, wide open up to 5 cm in diameter. It blooms before leaves. The height of the plants during flowering is not more than 10-15 cm. Fruits in late May, June. Propagated by seeds. Shoots appear in a year. The plant is introduced into the culture. In Japan, numerous decorative varieties with double flowers of white, pink, red color are bred.