How to cook nutritious and healthy food for pigs?
Experienced pig farmers are well aware that pigs not only like to eat, they prefer quality food. That is, despite the almost omnivorous nature, pigs “know a lot” about tasty and healthy food. Good food, these animals eat with excellent appetite, increasing weight and maintaining health. In this article, we will talk in detail about the biological methods of feed preparation for pigs, which allow us to obtain healthy and tasty food for these animals.
The main methods of cooking feed in pig breeding
Under mechanical feed preparation It means cutting, crushing and mixing. It is necessary that the food is well absorbed in the digestive system of the animal. Small parts are digested faster and more fully. The grain is crushed. Whole grain does not have time to digest in the pig intestine. All vegetables, grass are necessarily crushed.
The easiest method for preparing feed for pigs for better digestion of food - thermal. Most often combine thermal and mechanical types of feed processing. For example, hay, grass, as well as cake is not advisable to give in a dry form. Such pig products are too coarse. To soften, they are soaked in boiling water for 3 hours before feeding. In this case, fresh grass is cleaned from stems and chopped. Chop steamed together in cereals.
All legumes are boiled for at least half an hour. Steaming, as for cereals, it will not be enough. Grain for young animals is slightly fried. Roasted grain is tastier, more nutritious and indispensable for growing teeth in piglets. Barley is considered the best for frying.
Fermentation of products, germination and yeast are biological methods for preparing feed for pigs. How are they good? All of these processes facilitate digestion. At the same time, vitamins are not destroyed, and their amount even increases.
For example, sauerkraut is both tastier and more nutritious than raw. In addition, it has more vitamins. “Correct” microorganisms with products work wonders. Read more about this in our material. Why vegetables should be fermented and how to do it correctly?
Another example of the biological preparation of feed - cereals can be germinated. They become softer, increase in volume, and also synthesize additional amino acids and vitamins.
The following are more detailed examples of the preparation of feed for pigs by biological methods.
Special mix fermentation
To ferment feed, you need to buy special fermenting mixtures. The most popular - Lesnov sourdough. It is obtained from the contents of the rumen of cows. And the processes that take place in the fermentation tank are identical to the digestion in the rumen of cows. Coarse fiber is converted to microbial proteins.
Particularly advanced pig farmers get Lesnov's leaven on their own. Cow slurry is mixed with bran. After the start of fermentation, straw is added and it is kept warm for some time. Then feed obtained is fermented with dough and later passed through an extruder. The output is sterile extruded feed.
Lesnov sourdough is very easy to use. For processing 1 ton of low-value plant residues, 5 g of dry powder is sufficient. The minimum portion of the bookmark is 200 kg. The powder is mixed with plant matter moistened to 70% at a temperature of + 60 ... + 70aboutC. The process takes about 3-4 hours.
In processed feed, the protein content is more than doubled. Sugars are also formed from fiber, and the amount of fiber is reduced to 5 times. The microflora of the rumen enriches its environment with vitamins of groups D, B, E, K, N. After treatment with the drug, the food turns out to be highly fermented, aromatic, and pigs eat it well.
The dough is planted on 3-4 kg of bran or crushed. Mix with 3-4 liters of water (temperature from +40 to +60aboutC.) The mixture gives "work" for about 4 hours. The resulting sourdough is already mixed with the main feed. Feed is placed in the yeast container, adjusted to an optimum humidity of 50–70%. Stirring like porridge, heat up to + 45 ... + 60aboutC. The process goes on at room temperature, the mixture cools down gradually.
Best of all, this biological method for preparing pig food works at startup with 55% humidity and the same temperature. Food containing 5-8% fiber can withstand 3-4 hours, 10-12% fiber - 5-6 hours, fiber 15-25% - 7-8 hours, 30-45% - 10-12 hours.
After cooking, add mineral additives and premixes, salt. This feed mixture for pigs smells of bread and eats readily. But, despite this, it is impossible to replace all the feed with it. Maximum 40% of the diet. Otherwise, the microflora in the pig’s intestines will not change for the better. When this happens to cows, they pierce a scar.
If the food does not ferment well, you can increase the temperature to +70aboutC. Often this happens with coarse grinding of grain.
Foods with a high starch content, for example cereals, are excellently suited for malting. Malignant feed for pigs in pots or barrels indoors at room temperature.
Ground feed (or feed mixture) is poured into containers and brewed with a 3-fold volume of boiling water (with a temperature of +80 to + 90 ° С). The mixture is shaken and sprinkled to insulate with hay cutting. When malting one grain feed, it is enough to cover them with a rag or film. After 2-3 hours, the treat is ready.
The malted food becomes 3 times sweeter, acquires a pleasant smell.
A good malting starter is malt. To do this, germinate barley, rye or oats. To start the process, 2% of malt by weight of the feed is sufficient.
Ready malted food is cooled and added to coarse or succulent food. Malted food is perishable, so it must be prepared for each feeding separately. All concentrated feeds must not be malignant. In the diet of pigs they should not be more than 40%.
Cooking dough. For yeasting 1 centner (100 kg) of crushed, you need to take 1 pack or a little less (0.7 kg) of pressed baking yeast and mix them in 40-50 l of warm water. Mix the yeast with water well and pour 20 kg of crusher into the same container. Stir occasionally for about five hours.
Add 120-150 liters of warm water to the prepared dough. The rest of the feed - 80 kg - fall asleep in the tank. The whole process takes three hours. For the process to proceed evenly, the product must be mixed several times.
More carbohydrate feeds are used for dough. For example, barley, corn, oats. Other grain products are also suitable for the final process.
Unpaired way. You can jerk without starting a dough. Yeast is bred in warm water, in an amount from 500 g to 1 kg. The resulting talker is poured into a container for yeast. To obtain a centner of finished feed take 150-200 liters of warm water. 1 centner of crusher is poured there. Stirring occasionally (every 20-25 minutes) is kept from 6 to 9 hours.
There are several ways to accelerate the growth of yeast and sour milk microorganisms:
- pre-salted and mixed about a fifth of the feed;
- add 2% germinated grains;
- sweeten with molasses (1-2%);
- finely chopped root crops - carrots or beets (10-15%) - stimulate yeast well;
- An additional source of protein for bacteria can be well-ground legume hay.
The sanitary requirements for premises and equipment for the production of feed based on yeast are very high. Everything must be sterile.
To train pigs for food based on yeast and fermentation should be gradually. Piglets, 2-3 weeks before weaning, begin to gradually (from 10% of servings) bring up to 40% of all concentrated feed. In feeding with food prepared through yeast, you need to take breaks. Give 3-4 weeks, then take a break for 2 weeks.
Valuable succulent feeds are silage masses. Silo for pigs is different from that for cows. Because of its composition, it is called combined. It consists of several components, the combination of which gives a complete feed.
Properly prepared combisilos is very popular with pigs. On it they grow quickly and do not get sick. Indeed, in such a silo contains an almost complete set of trace elements and amino acids.
Combisilos is a great way to store food for the winter. At the same time, proteins are formed from green fodder during silage, and easily digestible carbohydrates from root tubers.
The main components of combisilos are greens, potatoes and root crops. Silage without carbohydrates is impossible. Carbohydrates are formed from starch - raw materials under the influence of amylase enzymes from green feed. Therefore, silo potatoes can only be with green plants.
The approximate composition of the raw materials: sugar beets (60%), green corn with ears of corn (30%) add chopped bean hay little by little. Beets can be partially replaced with steamed potatoes.
All ingredients are well crushed, compacted tightly in sealed containers and covered.
During fattening in winter, kombisilos replaces root crops.
Homemade feed recipe
- All cereals are thoroughly washed and dried so as not to deteriorate.
- With the help of a grinder or a meat grinder, cereals are grinded.
- Crushed cereals are mixed with the rest.
- We get dry feed. We mix it with warm water until a pasty state.
- Using a meat grinder, we turn the dough into granules.
- Dry and get granular feed.
Granular feed is good for small piglets, which form the airways. From grain dust crushed feed they become inflamed and deformed.
Continuous feeding with just one compound feed will not be enough. The more diverse the food, the more complete it is. Therefore, feed is flavored with legumes porridge, food waste, back.
The mixture is given to small piglets only in warm, thick or wet loose form. The most successful food temperature for pigs is +30 degrees.
There are special additives in feeds that allow pigs to be raised more efficiently. It:
- antibiotics - improve disease resistance;
- mineral supplements - stimulate growth;
- vitamins and amino acids - affect the quality, density and taste of meat;
- tissue-derived growth stimulants - increase immunity and live weight growth.
On sale you can find a variety of feed additives. Here are some:
- "Etonius" - Affects growth and improves meat quality.
- "Amilosubtilin GZH" - improves lipid metabolism, feed digestibility. Apply with greasy fattening.
- Betazine - growth preparation, effectively saves feed per kg gain.
- Sapropel - also applies to bioadditives, but it does not need to be bought, but can be found in any swamp or lake. This is bottom mud. It contains many amino acids and trace elements.
Bioadditives are diluted with water before use and the solution is added to the feed. When using antibiotics, vitamins must be given.