Summer diseases of berry and fruit crops
In recent years, summer weather in most regions is unpredictable, which has a particularly negative effect on the development and yield of garden and berry crops and garden crops. In order to secure your economy, protective measures must be started from the autumn of the previous year, and they come down, first of all, to agrotechnical measures. The garden and the berry planted by zoned varieties, promptly cleaned of weeds and other debris, promptly watered and fed, will withstand the onset of diseases with a sharp change in weather conditions (prolonged rains, cold snap, epiphytotic infections, etc.).
June is associated with the growth of the ovaries, the formation of the crop and the beginning of the ripening of early berries and fruit crops. Therefore, cloudy and rainy weather during this period increases the risk of damage to various diseases. In June-July, non-contagious and contagious diseases receive rapid development.
Non-communicable are diseases that do not transfer to other plants and cultures. When getting rid of the source of the disease, the plants recover without damage to other crops. The main causes of non-communicable diseases are a lack of essential nutrients, trace elements, irrigation regimen and others.
Infectious (infectious) diseases are distinguished by the ability to switch to other plants, sometimes with a change of owners, multiplying rapidly, harming several crops, destroying the plants themselves and the crop formed by them in a short period of time.
Common signs of fungal diseases
Fungal diseases are caused by different groups of negative fungi that penetrate into the internal organs of plants and replace their natural functions in physiological processes, which causes their death. Fungal spores propagate, which grow together with mycelium through the internal organs of plants. Outwardly, the disease manifests itself in the form of blackening of the leaves, the appearance of tubercles on the leaf surface and young shoots, individual spots of different colors, which gradually merge together. Leaves turn yellow, brown, fall off. The most advanced disease reaches in June-July. It affects all organs of the plant, including the fruits. In the summer, it spreads with conidiospores during prolonged wet weather and rains.
The fungal diseases of the berry include true and false powdery mildew, sphere library (powdery mildew) Septoria (white spotting) anthracnose, cercosporosis (brown spotting) and other fungal and bacterial diseases.
Most of the berry plants with anthracnose, cercosporosis, septeriosis, powdery mildew and other fungal diseases affect red currants, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries. A distinctive feature of fungal diseases in the initial development is leaf damage in the form of greenish-yellow, and later - brown and other spots. Gradually, the disease passes to the petioles and stalks. Leaves remain only at the ends of the twigs. Green shoots are covered with brown sores.
Fruit crops (apple trees, pears, peaches, cherries and others) are affected scab, phylosticosis, coccomycosis, moniliosis (fruit rot) leaf spotting, powdery mildew, rust, common cancer and other fungal diseases.
External manifestations of the disease begin with buds, leaves, go on young shoots, fruits. Sick organs change the color of the leaves, become covered with fluff on the lower and then upper side of the leaf blades, leaf spotting appears, first in the form of separate small spots of different colors and borders, subsequently merging into one spot. Leaves fall. The fruits are mummified or rot.
All these changes in the berry and fruit crops indicate a fungal or bacterial disease and the need for plant treatments.
Fungal Disease Control Measures
Copper-containing preparations of contact action, which can be used for treatments 25-30 days before harvest, act effectively on fungal diseases. Dilute preparations in a tank mixture according to the recommendations and spray them into the phases indicated on the package or in the accompanying documentation: Abiga-Peak, Profilactin, Bordeaux liquid, Topaz, Oksikhom, Profit.
Recently, drugs have appeared on the market of chemical preparations for the treatment of fungal diseases, which have, in addition to a protective, anti-spore-forming effect - Ordan, Profit-Gold, Acrobat MC, Skor, Previkur and others.
Chemicals require caution in use, as they have a negative effect on the health of humans, animals, birds and insects. When applying them, a long waiting period should be taken into account, therefore, drugs can be used on early crops (raspberries, currants, gooseberries, irgi, early cherries and others) only in spring, before flowering.
It is more advisable to use biological drugs from diseases of various etiologies at the cottage or in the adjoining area. They are made on a living basis, not contraindicated for the human body. The waiting period does not exceed 3-5 days, and some preparations can be used even during harvesting with its gradual maturation.
Naturally, biological plant protection products against diseases have a shorter period of exposure to infection and require repeated use, but the ability to maintain health and get environmentally friendly products fully pays for the time spent on repeated treatment of plants. It should be noted that the vast majority of biological products (biofungicides and bioinsecticides) are mixed in tank mixtures, which reduces the number of treatments.
Of the biological products, fungal and bacterial biofungicides have proven themselves well. In regions with cool and wet summers, the Fitodoctor biofungicide is effective in protecting fruit crops from bacterial cancer, scab, coccomycosis, root rot. The bacterial biofungicides Bactofit, Phytocide, Planrin, Pseudobacterin and the universal biopreparation Haupsin, which qualitatively protects orchards, berries, vineyards, fields, melons and orchards from bacterial and fungal diseases, are needed in a garden first-aid kit. Haupsin not only destroys the disease, it also has a growth-promoting property.
Viral diseases annually expand their negative impact on the berry and horticultural crops: curly hair and leaf mosaic, outgrowth, mycoplasmal diseases (witches' brooms) and others are practically not amenable to chemical destruction. Protection against viral diseases comes down to the physical destruction of diseased plants.
Among biological products, Pentafag-S biological product went on sale. It contains virions of bacterial viruses and destroys not only fungal and bacterial diseases, but also viral ones. This drug, like other biological products, is safe for humans, bees and warm-blooded animals. The above drugs have already been tested and have proven themselves in the fight against diseases of horticultural crops and berries.
Annually, new means of protecting fruit and berry crops from disease damage appear on the market of biological products. You can get acquainted with them in the annual catalogs of approved preparations for protecting plants from diseases.