The piercing simplicity of the jaundice
Jaundice, we have almost unknown under the botanical name erysimums - one of the most striking spring plants. They seem modest and unprepossessing, but when the dazzling yellow colors of simple flowers brighten the bushes with bright dots, it is impossible to take your eyes off the plant. The ability to effectively set color accents and create variegated ripples with jaundice is difficult to compete with. And the honey, sugary aroma only emphasizes the piercing shades of acrylic paints. Among icterics there are annuals, and biennials, and perennials. And they are all grown according to similar rules and do not require complex care.
Jaundice (Rysimum) - a genus of herbaceous plants of the Cabbage family (Brassicaceae).
Bright colors and a large selection of growth forms
Jaundice, or eryzimum, is a large genus of herbaceous flowering plants, including annuals, biennials, and perennials. The species diversity of jaundice is not limited to species that are different in frost resistance and durability, but it also allows you to choose plants of completely different sizes and growth forms.
Without exception, icterics are bushy plants, densely branching, forming dense bushes and sods. The height of annual plants ranges from 30 to 80 cm, some perennials are limited to 10 cm. The leaves are linear, lanceolate, small, create a textural effect. The plants are especially bright because of their cold, bluish-emerald color, which contrasts well with the warm palette of bright colors. Flowers with rounded petals, sharply tapering at the base, bright sepals and a small “eye” look cute and simple. Among the jaundice, there are plants with simple and double flowers. After flowering, icteric fruit tied with tetrahedral cylindrical or linear fruits, in which seeds ripen in late August and September.
The color palette traditionally includes yellow, orange and red in the brightest colors, but some species can boast of raspberry and pastel cream colors.
Jaundice is a poisonous plant and when working with seedlings and shares, you need to be careful and protect your hands.
Types and varieties of jaundice
About 100 species of plants are found in the genus of jaundice. The most popular of the species of icteric is considered to be annual. They bloom especially brightly and plentifully, and aromas are able to surprise with their sweetness and strength. At the same time, short-lived jaundice can be grown both as annuals and as biennials.
Jaundice cherie (Erysimum cheiri), we still sell Cheri under the old name lacfolioli and cheyrantus - one of the most popular species that can be grown as a biennial, but still more often cultivated as an annual. In the southern regions and countries - evergreen, spring-flowering, spectacular perennial. The upright, powerful, densely branching jaundice up to 30 to 80 cm tall can boast of bright greenery and dazzling flowering, for which these plants are so fond of. The greens are emerald-bluish, very beautiful and dense. The flowers consist of four rounded petals up to 2 cm long, which suddenly taper into the nails and contrast beautifully with the stamens in the center of the flower and nectaries. Thanks to the color change at different stages of blooming, flowers offer to admire the overflow of orange shades from brick to almost yellow. The plant seems to show the whole palette of orange acrylic tones. In addition to the basic species, there are varieties and mixes with brown, gold, carmine, burgundy, wine, pink, pearl colors (Bedder, Riesen-Goliath-Lack, Goldkleid, Golgkonig, Tom Thumb, etc.) When grown as an annual, it blooms two months after sowing, from July to October, in warm regions, perennial jaundices bloom in early spring.
Jaundice Marshallwe have known as the Allioni hybrid (Erysimum marschallianum, formerly erysimum x allionii) is a magnificent hybrid plant that is also grown as an annual or biennial. Outwardly, it is very similar to the yellowness of Chery, only the color of its flowers is more plain, apricot-orange, and the inflorescences themselves from umbrellas gradually stretch into the brush as they bloom.
Yellowness orange, or jaundice of Perovsky (Erysimum perofskianum) - the most common among all types of yellifer and the most popular annual variety. This herbaceous plant with straight shoots branching from the very base of the bush, not exceeding 40 cm, is often completely limited to pillows about 20 cm in height. Small linear leaves are typical for all icters, create a very dense hem. Nondescript simple flowers are collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences on the tops of the stems. The main pride of this species is a dazzling saffron yellow color, which seems nothing more than radiant.
Very rare pallas jaundice, or Redovsky (Erysimum redowskii), blooming in the second year after the emergence of seedlings and dying after a single season of May flowering. A spectacular and beautiful seroliferous plant with linear narrow leaves, compact bushes from 5 to 20 cm in height and few yellow inflorescences.
Perennial plants are not particularly durable, the bushes need to be updated every 3-4 years at best. The most decorative types include:
- lilac jaundice hybrid (Erysimum hybridum), most often presented as a separate variety "Bowles Mauve", a perennial, powerful plant up to 1 m high with gray greens, woody shoots, developing as shrubs and flowering throughout the summer (winter hardiness up to -18 degrees);
- soft creamjaundice Altai, or icteric low (Rysimum altaicum) - perennial with a height of 10 to 70 cm with single, unbranched stems, linear leaves and delicate pale yellow flowers;
- jaundice alpine (Erysimum alpinumtoday retrained in Little affair or turret — turritis brassica), compact perennial with a height of about 10-15 cm with more than a centimeter yellow flowers, a very strong aroma and dark greens. This species blooms in May, in addition to the basic form, there are cream and lilac varieties;
- also low dwarfish icteric (Erysimum pumilum) with grayish, very small leaves, growing with a kind of wide pillow, attracting attention with lemon fragrant flowers that seem to be scattered across the bush with sequins;
- a little taller - from 15 to 30 cm - jaundice beautiful, or pretty (Erysimum pulchellum), with densely branched shoots pressed to the ground, May flowering, pubescent lanceolate leaves and golden-orange flowers in small inflorescence brushes.
In the design of the garden, jaundice is used:
- as one of the best plants for colorful and chintz compositions, including mixborders, flower beds, and rabatok;
- for bright color spots, dazzling bursts of color;
- to create bright spots that enliven the lawn;
- in flower beds and discounts;
- as a plant for texture spots;
- in carpet mixborders;
- for flower-islands and planting in flower beds around the recreation area and terrace;
- in rockeries and rock gardens;
- as a partner for quickly dying spring accents (perfectly closes voids and decaying foliage);
- as an excellent potted and gimbal frame culture, especially in places where you can enjoy aroma nearby;
- in the role of mellifer.
The best partners for the jaundice: forget-me-nots, daisies, pansies, lavender, poppies, sage, Veronica, calendula, anemones, tulips, marigolds.
Conditions Required by Jaundice
Regardless of size and even longevity, all icterics are very similar in terms of growing conditions. These are sun-loving cultures, they will not be afraid even of the south-oriented slopes of the alpine hills and the hottest outdoor areas of the garden.
Unpretentious and icteric to the soil. They prefer to grow in loose, sandy soils with a high content of humus and medium-fertile organic matter. They feel great both in dry and in medium-moist soil. Dampness and high humidity can not stand, as well as dense soils, in which insufficient water permeability leads to excessive accumulation of moisture after precipitation.
Planting of icteric
Jaundice adore soils with a high content of humus and humus. Before planting in the garden soil, humus and compost are mixed, but they do not make full mineral fertilizers - they are best used before flowering.
The distance between the bushes is from 15 to 30 cm. After planting, neat watering is carried out.
Caring for jaundice in the garden
Watering these plants is not needed, but they gratefully respond to additional hydration during prolonged spring drought. During watering, it is important not to soak the leaves and bases of the shoots.
Jaundice will need a single top dressing. Complete mineral fertilizers are applied to the plant not at the planting stage, but dissolved in water for irrigation before flowering. Such fertilizers are enough for icterics for the whole season.
The need for weeding can be removed by mulching the soil.
After flowering, it is better to cut off all perennial jaundice. Shrubs without pruning, like spring ground covers, slopes to fall apart, loss of compactness and density, become splayed and not too decorative. But if you cut the shoots low, the plant will restore a powerful pillow of greenery and will decorate flower beds and perennials with an attractive texture of emerald foliage until the end of the season. Not afraid of haircuts and short-lived jaundice.
In a container culture, systemic irrigation is needed, but with drying of the substrate between the procedures, as well as top dressing with a frequency of 3-4 weeks.
Wintering of jaundice
Two-year-old and perennial plants are sheltered for the winter, because all jaundice do not differ in high winter hardiness. Young biennials for flowering next year and perennials anywhere in the winter are mulched with dry foliage or other plant materials, and then covered with spruce branches.
But even annual species cannot be called non-cold resistant. Plants perfectly tolerate temperature drops of -3ºC. Short-term frosts do not stop flowering in spring and in perennial species.
Pest and Disease Control
Jaundice could be called a virtually invulnerable culture, if not for its instability to waterlogging: at the slightest dampness, both summer and perennial species suffer from rot and become vulnerable to fungal diseases. White rust is especially dangerous for the jaundice of Chery: the affected plants must be destroyed immediately.
Reproduction of jaundice
The most convenient method of reproduction of any icteric is considered seed. Only perennial plants propagate vegetatively, and even that is very rare. Seeds remain viable for 3-4 years, but it is better to use them fresh.
Annual jaundice can be obtained both by the seedling method, and by sowing directly into the soil. In the latter case, crops are carried out either in the spring (in May) or in the winter. For seedlings, the jaundice is sown according to the standard technique, slightly covering with soil and necessarily protecting the crops with glass or film. Seeds germinate at a temperature of about 1 degrees, the process of emergence of seedlings takes a little more than 1 week. Seedlings in the soil are thinned, leaving a distance of 15-20 cm between the plants. Seedlings are dived when the second pair of true leaves appears in individual containers or large containers with the same distance between the sprouts. It is transferred to open soil in May-June. On average, annual jaundice bloom 2 months after sowing seeds.
Biennial jaundice is grown from seeds by direct sowing at the site of cultivation. The plant can be sown as soon as the threat of frosts disappears in May or June, but for the middle strip it is better to postpone sowing until July. Winter sowing often leads to the fact that plants bloom only after one season: next year they simply develop, and bloom only in the second spring. It is possible to grow biennials through seedlings, sowing in May or June and replanting in the soil only in September (the main advantage is that it is more difficult to keep young seedlings in the soil in summer than seedlings). After flowering and completion of fruiting, biennials and annuals simply die.
Perennial jaundices are also propagated by spring sowing of seeds or sowing before winter on seedling ridges (they are transferred to a permanent place only after the first successful wintering) or by rooting of summer cuttings.