Flower garden: color scheme
«Every Hunter Wants to Know Where the Pheasant Sits"- this children's counting room, which helps to remember the order of the colors in the rainbow, everyone knows perfectly well. And it is with these flowers and their shades that we meet when working with plants. The choice of colors depends on many factors. Who are you according to the zodiac sign, what is your favorite color, who are you by temperament (choleric, sanguine, melancholic, phlegmatic), what effect do you want to achieve (shock, exciting or, conversely, calming, relaxing) - all this will greatly affect choice of colors. It is believed that temperamental and irritable people are better suited for flower beds made in blue and violet colors, but shy and shy it is better to choose yellow and orange colors.
There are scientifically based laws by which different color combinations act on the human psyche and sensations in different ways. But at the same time, there is a lot of subjective perception of color. If one likes the combination of red and yellow, and the other can't stand him, convincing both of them is a futile exercise. Everyone has their own taste, their addictions. But the basic principles of color combination need to know.
The experts found that of all the factors affecting the emotional state of a person (color, smell, sound), it is color that is of the greatest importance.
It is known that red is effective and active. It increases muscle tension, blood pressure, accelerates the rhythm of breathing, stimulates the brain.
Orange - warm, festive, affecting digestion (if you want to improve the appetite of your family members, make the kitchen in orange tones), accelerating the flow of blood.
Yellow color creates a feeling of warmth, light, sun, lightness and fun. It stimulates vision, brain function, calms psychoneuroses, and causes a good mood.
Green - lowers blood pressure (it is not for nothing that people walk along the forest so beneficially), dilates blood vessels, relieves neuralgia, refreshes and soothes.
Blue color - reduces muscle tension, helps to slow the rhythm of breathing, but fatigue may appear from its long perception.
Blue - a quiet, heavy and strict color, symbolizing longing, fidelity and trust, but purple - increases endurance, but causes sadness and melancholy.
White - neutral, increases volume (we all know well that it is better not to wear white clothes for ladies with curvaceous forms), symbolizes chastity and cleanliness.
Black is neutral, reduces volume and symbolizes sorrow or serious solemnity.
There are a large number of different coloristic systems that allow you to identify combining colors. The simplest such system is a color wheel, divided into eight parts and including seven primary colors of the spectrum plus magenta, obtained by mixing red and purple (Fig. 1). In different color systems, a circle can be divided into 10, 12, 18, 24 or more parts. There is no fundamental difference between these circles, they differ only in different degrees of detail in the shades of the same color.
When creating a flower garden, there is a need for a combination of different color tones. Monochrome flower garden (with the predominance of one color tone) includes, as a rule, plants that differ in lightness and saturation (for such flower beds, pastel low-key tones are mainly suitable - pink, lilac, white, golden).
Combination of two colors gives the greatest effect if colors are used that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel (red - orange, blue - purple) or in the range 120-180 ° (orange - blue, red - blue) (Fig. 2). If the selected colors differ greatly in saturation (for example, light saturated yellow and dark unsaturated violet), you can combine these colors using the area ratio: the saturated tone should occupy a smaller area, and the unsaturated (in this case, violet) should be large (Fig. 3) .
Often you have to use a large number of colors.
Tri-color Mixborder can be created in two ways. The first is to choose the colors that are located in 120 ° through the color wheel, i.e. at regular intervals (red-yellow-blue) (Fig. 4). The second is to select the dominant color, and the other two will be located in the range of 30-60 ° from the color contrasting to the dominant (for example, the dominant color is purple, the contrasting color is yellow, and in the range 30-60 ° from yellow there are orange and green).
Three colors can also be selected within a small interval (90 °) of the color wheel (for example, violet, red and magenta or cyan, blue and violet) (Fig. 5).
Four-color Mixborder can also be created in two ways. The first is to choose two pairs of contrasting colors arranged so that the angle between them is 30-60 ° (for example, blue - purple and yellow - orange). The second is to use one dominant color, complementary to it in the color wheel, and two colors adjacent to the complementary, which are located in the range 30-60 ° from it (for example, blue - orange with yellow and red) (Fig. 6).
You can use multi-tone combinations consisting of five or more colors, but this is already a more difficult task, although the same laws apply here.
When working with color when creating flower beds, consider the following rules:
- the color effect depends on the play of light and shadow, as well as on the surface structure of flowers and leaves (shiny surfaces reflect light and appear lighter, luminous, matte - absorb light and appear darker from this);
- the uniformity of the flower garden implies the choice of one of the color schemes - warm or cold (warm colors - red, yellow, orange; cold - blue, blue, purple);
- to visually enlarge small areas, you need to use a limited number of colors and avoid contrasts;
- blue tones in the background optically enhance the garden, especially if you plant flowers in yellow and red in the front edge (so that you can plant more red and yellow flowers in the background in order to optically zoom in on the narrow plan in the background);
- the more intense and varied in color terms the foreground of the flower garden, the calmer the background and the natural frame should be;
- the larger the proportion of green in the garden, the greater the number of tones and colors, including contrasting ones, it can be combined (i.e., the more the lawn and tree plantings, the more bright flower beds can be);
- the more color tones you use and the more intense they are, the greater should be the proportion of neutral colors (for example, white, gray, silver-green, bluish-green, golden-green);
- the predominance of blue, white and pink tones is recommended - they are less saturated and play the role of a background. Saturated tones - red, yellow, orange - win in small groups and, as a rule, make up 5-6th of the total mass of plants;
- cultures with dark leaves and flowers are recommended to be placed in the center of the flower garden, to give it a sense of stability and poise;
- Shock or high-contrast combinations of cold and warm colors, for example, bright yellow and red tulips with blue and blue muscari or raspberry grass with bronze-orange gelenium, create a color spot in the garden of extraordinary strength and brightness. No more than one such composition is allowed in the garden.
- Bochkova I. Yu. - We create a beautiful flower garden. The principles of plant selection.