Superphosphate - benefits and uses
Superphosphate is not considered a very complex fertilizer, the main substance of which is phosphorus. In addition to phosphorus, this fertilizer contains nitrogen in a small dose. Given this, when applying fertilizer to the soil in the autumn period, you need to be careful and try to apply it at that time either in small doses, or fertilize the soil intended for planting spring crops.
- Superphosphate Components
- On the need for phosphorus for plants
- Superphosphate species
- Optimum primers for superphosphate
- How to fertilize with superphosphate?
As we have already said, the main substance in this fertilizer is phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus in superphosphate can vary greatly and range from 20 to 50 percent. Phosphorus is present in the fertilizer as free phosphoric acid and monocalcium phosphate.
The main advantage of this fertilizer is the presence of phosphorus oxide in it, which is a water-soluble compound. Thanks to this composition, cultivated plants assimilate the substances they need faster, especially if a fertilizer previously dissolved in water is introduced. In addition, this fertilizer may contain: nitrogen, sulfur, gypsum and boron, as well as molybdenum.
Superphosphate is obtained from naturally occurring phosphorites, which are formed by converting dead animals of our planet into bone minerals. A less common source material, due to which superphosphate is obtained, is waste from the melting of metal (tomoscales).
Phosphorus itself, as you know, is not a very widespread element, but plants with a deficit will grow weakly and give meager yields, therefore, the use of superphosphate to enrich the soil with phosphorus and supply plants with this element is very necessary.
On the need for phosphorus for plants
Phosphorus in plants contributes to a full energy metabolism, which, in turn, favors the accelerated entry of plants into the fruiting season. The presence of this element in abundance allows plants, thanks to the root system, to absorb various micro and macro elements.
It is believed that phosphorus regulates the presence of nitrogen, therefore, it contributes to the normalization of the nitrate balance in plants. When phosphorus is in short supply, the leaves of various crops become bluish, less often violet-blue or greenish-yellow. In vegetables, the root center is covered with brownish spots.
Most often, a lack of phosphorus is signaled by newly planted seedlings, as well as seedlings located on the site. Quite often, a change in the color of leaf blades, indicating a lack of phosphorus, is observed in the cold periods of the year, when its consumption from the soil is difficult.
Phosphorus improves the functioning of the root system, inhibits age-related changes in a variety of crops, stimulates plants to bear fruit, while also prolonging the production period, favorably affects the taste of fruits and berries, as well as vegetables.
There are several types of fertilizer. The main difference between one fertilizer and another lies in the method of obtaining this or that composition. The most popular are simple superphosphate, granular superphosphate, double superphosphate and ammonium superphosphate.
Simple superphosphate is a gray powder. It is good because it does not cake when humidity is less than 50%. This fertilizer contains up to 20% phosphorus, about 9% nitrogen and about 9% sulfur, and it also contains calcium sulfate. If you smell this fertilizer, you can smell an acid smell.
If we compare simple superphosphate with granular superphosphate or double superphosphate, then it will be (in quality) in third place. As for the cost of this fertilizer, it is low, so it is often used on large land masses. Very often, simple superphosphate increases the fertility of compost, green fertilizer, often it is introduced into the soil in dissolved form.
To obtain granular superphosphate, simple superphosphate is first wetted with water, then pressed, then granules are made from it. In this fertilizer, the proportion of phosphorus reaches half the weight of the fertilizer, and the proportion of calcium sulfate is one third.
Granules are convenient to use and save. Due to the fact that granules both in water and in the soil dissolve slowly, the effect of this fertilizer is longer and sometimes reaches several months. The most commonly used granular superphosphate on cruciferous, bean, cereal and bulb.
In superphosphate there is a double minimum of impurities, it contains a lot of phosphorus and calcium, as well as about 20% nitrogen and about 5-7% sulfur.
Ammonized superphosphate is usually used for oilseeds and cruciferous crops with acute sulfur deficiency in the soil. Sulfur in this fertilizer is about 13%, but more than half is calcium sulfate.
Optimum primers for superphosphate
Best of all, the components of this fertilizer are absorbed by plants on alkaline or neutral soils, but on soils with a high level of acidity, phosphorus can decompose into iron phosphate and aluminum phosphate, which are not absorbed by cultivated plants.
In this case, the effect of superphosphate can be enhanced by mixing it before adding it to phosphate rock, limestone, chalk and humus, using it on calcareous lands.
How to fertilize with superphosphate?
Superphosphate can be added to compost, added to the soil when making beds or holes, added to the soil in the autumn when it is being digged, scattered on the surface of the soil or even in snow, or dissolved in water and used as foliar top dressing.
Very often superphosphate is introduced precisely in the autumn period, at this time it is impossible to add an excess of this fertilizer. During the winter period, fertilizers will go into a form accessible to plants, and in the spring, cultivated plants will take as many substances from the soil as they need.
How much does this fertilizer need?
Typically, in the autumn, 45 g per square meter of soil is added for digging, in spring this amount can be reduced to 40 g. On too poor soils, the amount of this fertilizer can be doubled.
When added to humus - 10 kg, add 10 g of superphosphate. When planting potatoes or vegetable crops at a constant place in seedlings, it is advisable to add about half a teaspoon of this fertilizer to each well.
When planting shrubs, it is advisable to add 25 g of fertilizer to each planting hole, and when planting fruit trees - 30 g of this fertilizer.
The method of preparation of the solution
Fertilizer dissolved in water is usually used in spring. It's no secret that in this way nutrients penetrate plants as quickly as possible, however, you should know that this fertilizer is very poorly soluble in cold and hard water. To dissolve superphosphate, it is necessary to use soft water, ideally rainwater. The fertilizer must first be poured with boiling water, placed in about a liter capacity, and then the already dissolved fertilizer should be poured into the required volume of water.
If there is no hurry, then the fertilizer can be placed in a dark container with water, putting it in an open place on a sunny day - in a couple of hours the fertilizer will dissolve.
In order not to dissolve the fertilizer every time, you can prepare a concentrate, for which 350 g of fertilizer should be poured with three liters of boiling water. It remains for a quarter of an hour to stir the resulting composition so that the granules dissolve as completely as possible. Before use, this concentrate should be diluted with 100 g of concentrate per bucket of water. When fertilizing the soil in springtime, it is advisable to add 15 g of urea to this concentrate, and in autumn - 450 g of wood ash.
Now let’s talk about which crops and what is the best way to use superphosphate.
A week after transplanting seedlings, you can use simple superphosphate, it, in the amount of 50 g per square meter, must be applied to the previously loosened soil.
Superphosphate for fruit plants
It is usually brought in the spring, for each seedling they spend a tablespoon of this fertilizer. It is permissible to introduce it when planting a seedling in the planting pits, in each you need to pour 100 g of this fertilizer thoroughly mixed with the soil. With the introduction of such an amount of superphosphate when planting seedlings during the year, fertilizing with this fertilizer does not make sense.
Around the middle of the season, the introduction of superphosphate under adult trees can be repeated. During this period, 80-90 g of superphosphate should be added to the tree trunk strip for each tree.
Superphosphate for tomatoes
For tomatoes, superphosphate must be applied twice a season, usually the first time it is applied when planting seedlings, and the second time - during the flowering of tomatoes. When planting, 15 g of fertilizer is placed in the pit, carefully mixing it with soil. In the time interval, when the tomatoes bloom, you need to fertilize the culture with fertilizer diluted in water.
Superphosphate for potatoes
Superphosphate is usually added to the well when planting potatoes. Granular fertilizer is used, introducing 10 granules into each well, mixing them with the soil.
Superphosphate for cucumbers
Superphosphate is added under the cucumbers twice. The first top dressing is carried out a week after transplanting, at this time 50 g of superphosphate dissolved in a bucket of water are added, this is the norm per square meter of soil. The second time during the flowering period, 40 g of superphosphate, also dissolved in a bucket of water, is added, this is also the norm per square meter of soil.
Superphosphate is usually fertilized with soil reserved for garlic. Do this a month before planting garlic, combining top dressing with digging in the soil, spending 30 g of superphosphate per 1m2. If there is a deficiency of phosphorus (for a plant), then in the summer garlic can also be fertilized, for which 40 g of superphosphate should be diluted in a bucket of water and this solution should be sprayed with the aerial mass of garlic, wetting it well.
Superphosphate for grapes
Typically, superphosphate is added once every two years to this culture. At the height of the season, they add 50 g of superphosphate, which is embedded in moist soil to a depth of about 30 cm.
Superphosphate under strawberry garden
Under strawberries, garden superphosphate is added when transplanting seedlings. The amount of superphosphate per well is 10 g. You can add superphosphate in dissolved form, for which 30 g of fertilizer is dissolved in a bucket of water, the norm for each well is 250 ml of solution.
Superphosphate under raspberries
Superphosphate for raspberries is introduced in autumn - at the beginning or middle of September. The amount of superphosphate is 50 g per square meter. To make it, make small indentations, 15 cm backward from the center of the bush 30 cm.
They also fertilize the soil by placing fertilizing in trenches during the planting of raspberry seedlings. In each hole you need to make 70 g of superphosphate, mixing it well with the soil.
Superphosphate for the apple tree
Under an apple tree, this fertilizer is best applied in the fall in the amount of 35 g per square meter of the trunk circle into previously loosened and well-watered soil. For each apple tree, an average of 3 to 5 kg of superphosphate is used.
Conclusion You can see that superphosphate is a fairly popular fertilizer, it helps enrich the soil with phosphorus and other elements contained in this fertilizer. Fertilizer is inexpensive, and thanks to the prolonged action, the effect of its application lasts for years.