Under the canopy of the garden
Having planted a garden and seeing an empty area between young trees, the landlord immediately begins to occupy it with some plants he needs. And he does the right thing, in a businesslike way. However, he does not always know which crops can be planted under the canopy of trees, and which are not, how close to the tree such plantings should be placed, and at what age the maintenance of these "lodgers" in the garden will not be to the detriment of fruit crops. Let's consider the options for arranging near-trunk circles and row spacing.
How to keep circles
In the first 2–3 years of growth of young trees, truncal circles with a diameter of 1.5–2 m are arranged. At the 6–7th year, they expand to a diameter of 3 m. By the age of 10–12 years, the root system of trees completely occupies the area allocated to it. When placing trees in a row at a short distance from one another, instead of a trunk circle, a trunk strip is left, which is looked after in the same way as a trunk circle. The soil of trunks and stripes can be kept under black steam, covered with some kind of mulching material, or planted with ground cover plants, and can be used as an element of decorative design of a site.
Throughout the growing season, the un-cultivated area of the trunk circle is regularly loosened, destroying weeds and retaining moisture. If a sufficient amount of precipitation falls in spring and summer, the soil is loosened 3-4 times during the summer, if there is little precipitation, 5-6 times. Heavy soil is cultivated more often than light soil. After rain and watering in dry times, the soil is also loosened. They dig it in the fall: near the stem to a depth of 5-8 cm, further from it - at 12-15 cm. Digging under stone fruits and trees on clonal stocks is carried out 3-4 cm smaller. If the soil is dry at the beginning of autumn, digging is postponed to a later date or in the spring. On sandy and sandy loamy soils, it can be replaced with deep soaking. Loam is dug up once every 2-3 years, and the soil is heavy in mechanical composition annually.
Mulching of tree trunks and stripes is one of the most effective ways of keeping soil in the garden. Mulch reduces moisture evaporation, protects plant roots from freezing in winter, helps to improve soil structure, prevents the formation of soil crust, reduces daily temperature fluctuations, inhibits weed germination, enhances microbiological processes in the soil, and improves plant nutrition. Mulch any soil, except excessively moistened. Mulching is most effective on light soils - sandy and sandy loamy soils, as well as in areas of insufficient moisture. After planting the fruit seedling, the trunk circle is mulched in a radius of 0.7–1 m with a layer of 4–5 cm. As mulching materials, peat crumbs, rotted straw, sawdust, organic fertilizers, plant residues, needles, reeds, fallen leaves, special paper are used. polymer and other materials. In recent years, a new mulch has appeared - a pine nutshell. It is very decorative and can serve more than one year. For mulching, a black polyvinyl chloride film is also used. It is covered with a trunk circle in a radius of 1-1.5 m. The edges of the film are laid in grooves with a depth of 10-12 cm and covered with soil. At the same time, there is no need for weeding, moisture is well preserved under the film. Non-woven black synthetic fiber materials (lutrasil 60 UV, agril, spunbond, etc.) are also on sale. They, when mulching, perform the same functions as the film, but have advantages: they pass water and air well.
Barrel circle - garden decoration
The trunk circle can be very decorative if you turn it into a small flower garden. A necessary condition is that the tree should have a sufficiently high (65-70 cm) stanchion and branches raised above the ground. Of the flowers, low, shade-tolerant and with a shallow root system are preferred. You can also plant early flowering bulbous plants (snowdrops, muscari, hyacinths, tulips, etc.), or you can set up a small rocky garden.
How to keep aisles
Inter-row crops. In young gardens, trees do not fully utilize the nutritional area allocated to them, so the aisles are occupied by annuals. In amateur gardening, inter-row crops are most acceptable - vegetables: carrots, radishes, table beets, radishes, rutabaga, onions, garlic, lettuce, spinach, peas, beans, zucchini, potatoes, as well as flowers. High-stem plants (sunflower, corn, tobacco, etc.) are unsuitable for growing, since they can obscure young trees, as well as sugar beets and crops.
In row-grown apple and pear orchards, inter-row crops can be grown up to 6-8 years, in orchards on medium-tall and semi-dwarf rootstocks, where narrow row-spacing, the period for growing inter-row crops is reduced to 3-4 years, and in the dwarf orchard, row-spacings are left free. In any case, one should not plant inter-row crops on trunks and stripes. A common mistake: some lovers are so addicted that they plant strawberries or vegetables right up to the tree trunk. If the garden does not exceed three years of age, inter-row crops are placed at a distance of 0.5-1 m from the stem, if the garden is 4-8 years old - at a distance of 1.5-2 m.
Aisle - black steam
In the fruit-bearing garden, where the crowns are closed, the soil is mainly contained under black steam, maintaining its upper layer in a loose and weed-free state. But with long-term maintenance of the soil under the black vapor, its structure deteriorates, fertility decreases, and erosion increases on the slopes.
Black steam - siderates
In the gardens of the middle zone, the steam-sided system is widely used, in which green manure is planted in green manure to enrich the soil with nutrients and improve its physicochemical properties, combining them with the soil content under black steam. Siderata is sown in late June - early July at a seed rate of (g / m2): lupine 18-22, buckwheat 8-10, peas 15-18, phacelia 1.5, mustard 2, vetch oat mixture 16 (vetch 10, oats 6), pea-oat mixture 18 (peas 12, oats 6), lupine with phacelia 11 (lupine 10, phacelia 1), rapeseed 0.6-1. Sideral crops are mowed and planted in the fall in the flowering phase. About 3 kg of planted mass per 1 m2 of crop is equivalent to making 1 - 1.5 kg of manure.
Sowing green manure crops is most effective in rainy summers, in dry it is better not to carry it out. The greatest effect is achieved when legumes are used as siderates (lupins, phacelia, vetch, peas), since they enrich the soil with nitrogen. On sandy and clay-sandy soils, sowing of lupine gives good results, and on heavier soils - mustard or phacelia. The stems of plants embedded in the soil in the spring intensively decompose, increasing the content of nutrients in it precisely at that time when they are most needed by fruit trees.
In areas with excessive moisture, in irrigated gardens, as well as on slopes and terraces, it is better to keep the soil under cultural sod. For this, the aisles are sown with perennial grasses that are periodically mowed, and the mowed grass is left in place or raked on the near-stem strips (in contrast to a decorative lawn, where the grass is carried outside). Over the summer, mowing is carried out 5-8 times. The mowed mass gradually decomposes and enriches the soil with organic matter, which eliminates the need for organic fertilizers, and improves the structure and permeability of the soil. The best set of herbs for long-term sodding is cereal grass mix from meadow fescue (60%) and meadow bluegrass (40%). The seeding rate is 4-4.5 t / m2.
Mowing. In recent years, many amateur gardeners use ground cover low-growing plants that do not require mowing for gardening. The most common are the Polevosnaya and the periwinkle. Polevosnaya shoot - a perennial cereal plant is found everywhere in the European part of the country. Shoots spread along the ground and take root, the height of the stand is 10-12 cm. Short roots are located in a 5-7 cm soil layer. The polevole propagates by seeds, rhizomes, green cuttings, terrestrial shoots. Periwinkle is a perennial plant, widespread in the nature of the middle strip. This is an undersized creeping shrub. The aerial part and the root system are small. Periwinkle breeds well in parts of rooted shoots and by the end of the second year of growth forms a dense carpet of stems and leaves, suppresses weeds, protects the roots of trees from freezing and prevents soil erosion in gardens on the slopes.
- L. Yurina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Moscow